Ipperwash
Ipperwash
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Claiming the lands that they had been ceded in the past, a Native Nation fights to regain the Ipperwash territory.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Between 1818 and 1827, the Chippewas Native Indians began talks with representatives of the British Crown concerning the co-existence of Natives and Whites on land that is now Southwestern Ontario. Following these negotiations, the Chippewas agreed to share nearly six million hectares of land with the European settlers, although they kept five parcels of land, one of which was called Stoney Point [see Map 1 : Ipperwash]. Over time the Natives sold off some lots to individuals, including a portion that was later acquired by the province of Ontario; that portion became the Ipperwash Provincial Park [see Map 1 : Ipperwash].

SUMMARY
During World War II, in 1942, the Canadian Army evacuated the residents of Stoney Point [see Map 1 : Ipperwash] and Kettle Point [see Map 1 : Ipperwash] in order to set up a temporary military training camp. For this, the Chippewas received approximately $50,000 in compensation. When representatives of the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) undertook steps to return to their reserve in 1945, The Canadian government refused to leave the site. In 1981 it paid out an additional $2.5 million in compensation and interest, and agreed to hand over the Chippewas land when it was not longer of use for military purposes. Four years later, the Natives were granted permission to hunt and fish on the territory during hunting and fishing seasons decreed by the provincial government. At the same time, the Band Council was given a promise that the military use of the Ipperwash camp would be reviewed every four years. Despite that promise, the camp remained in government hands. In May 1993, groups of Natives came to settle on the land. In February the following year, the government announced that it wanted to negotiate the return of the Ipperwash camp to the First Nations people. After a confrontation with the Chippewas, the military personnel left the base. A few months later, a group of Natives occupied Ipperwash Provincial Park [see Map 1 : Ipperwash] to protect and reclaim a sacred burial ground. One Chippewas member, Anthony (Dudley) George, was shot by Ontario provincial police and died that night.

Concepts
Talks
Negotiations, conversations with the aim of arriving at agreements.